B R Ambedkar Biography
Dr B R Ambedkar is the chief architect of Indian constitution and was a great socio-political reformer. He is popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar. Ambedkar was born in a military cantonment of Mhow in the Central Provinces on 14 April 1891. He was the 14th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai Murbadkar. His father served in the Indian Army at the Mhow cantonment as Subedar. They belonged to Mahar caste, which were treated as untouchables and socio-economic discrimination.
In 1897, Ambedkar enrolled at Elphinstone High School in Bombay after family moved to the town. In 1908, Ambedkar got the opportunity to study at the Elphinstone College. In 1912, he graduated from Bombay University in economics and political science. In 1913, he went to the United States, where he joined postgraduate program at Columbia University in New York City. He passed his M.A. exam in 1915. After coming back from the US, Ambedkar was appointed as the Defence secretary to the King of Baroda. Ambedkar also join as a professor of political economy at the Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Bombay. In 1923 he was awarded honor of D.Sc by the London University. In 1927, he was awarded a Doctorate by the University of Columbia.
After returning to India, Ambedkar decided to fight against the caste discrimination in the society. He had the opinion that there should be separate electoral system for the Untouchables and lower caste people. He also favored the concept of providing reservations for Dalits and other religious communities. In 1932, an agreement signed between Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi at Yerwada Central Jail in Pune, which mention that a certain number of seats were reserved for Depressed Class. Dr. Ambedkar attended all the three Round Table Conferences in London. He launched a newspaper called Mooknayaka. In 1936, he founded the Independent Labor Party. In the 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly his party won 15 seats. Ambedkar was appointed on the Defence Advisory Committee and the Viceroy's Executive Council as Minister for Labor. After Independence, he was appointed as the nation's first Law Minister. On August 29, Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee.
He converted himself to Buddhism after attending a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks in Sri Lanka in 1950.
On 6 December, 1956 he died in Delhi. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor in 1990.