Networking Basics Info...
In star network, each node or workstation is connected via a point-to-point link to a central point like led hub, multi port repeater, or concentrator. In this topology if one node or computer doesn’t function it will not affect the others. But is the central point is affected or stops functioning than whole network will stop work.
Ring network consists of nodes that are joined by point-to-point connection to form a closed loop or ring. Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. In this type of network each computer has equal access to resources. The disadvantage of this type of network is that If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected and also the data transfer rate is slow as compared to others.
In this topology all stations are attached to a single cable. This network can still function if one of the computers malfunctions. It does not rely on central host.
Hybrid networks use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e.g., bus, star, ring, etc.).
An IP address is an address used in order to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. An IP address can be private - for use on a local area network (LAN) - or public - for use on the Internet or other wide area network (WAN). There are two IP addressing: IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 addresses consist of four bytes (32 bits), while IPv6 addresses are 16 bytes (128 bits). In IPv4 there are five classes:
A class (0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255), B class (188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206), C class (192.0.0.0 to 220.127.116.11), D class (18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124) and E class (240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255).
A subnet mask helps to know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks:
Class A: 255.0.0.0
Class B: 255.255.0.0
Class C: 255.255.255.0