Gupta Empire and Dynasty

The Gupta Empire was founded by Sri Gupta, which existed from 320 A.D. to 550 A.D. . The Gupta Era is known as the Golden period of Indian history. The peace and prosperity along with scientific and artistic inventions and discoveries were developed under Gupta rulers. The period is noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, philosophy and almost every sector of public and private life. Scholars like Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma were produced during Gupta period. The Gupta Kings were patrons of Brahmanical religion and Sanskrit once again became the official language. At its zenith, Gupta Empire controlled the whole of the Indian subcontinent.

After the downfall of Mauryan and Kushanas no great political power arose in India for a long time. At the beginning of the 4th century A.D., Srigupta established Gupta Dynasty in Magadha. He was succeeded to the throne by his son Ghatotkacha (280 A.D. – 319 A.D.). During the period of Srigupta and Ghatotkacha, Gupta rulers contain only a small portion of land.

The Gupta era begins in 320 A.D. when Ghatotkacha son Chandragupta I become the King of Gupta dynasty. Chandragupta married Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi. With the help of Licchavis of Nepal, Chandragupta expanded his power and Kingdom. He assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraja.

After the death of Chandragupta I, Samudragupta succeeded his father in 335 A.D and ruled over 45 years till his death in 380 A.D. He is known as the Napoleon of India in Indian history. HE was a military genius and he continued the growth of the kingdom. His Empire was extended from Afghanistan in the West to the Brahmaputra River in the East, from Himalayas in the North to the Godavari River in the South. HE was a strict follower of the Kautilya's Arthashastra to run the kingdom.

Chandragupta II ruled the empire from 380 A.D. to 415 A.D. after the death of his father Samdragupta. He is also known by the name Vikramaditya. During his period Gupta Empire reach its peak. He also likes his father extent the kingdom. Chandragupta had defeated the Western Kshatrapas capturing Malwa and Gujarat. Instead of Pataliputra, he ruled from Ujjain. During his reign, Chinese pilgrims Faxian visited India and mention the prosperity of the Empire. Trade and commerce flourished both within the country and outside. Silk, cotton, spices, medicine, priceless gemstones, pearl, precious metal and steel were exported by sea. His court contains nine famous scholars known as the Navaratnas ("nine gems"). These are Kalidasa, Amarasimha, Dhanvantari, Ghatakarapara, Kshapanaka, Shanku, Varahamihira, Vararuchi, and Vetala Bhatta.

Chandragupta II died about 413 A.D., and was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta. He ruled for forty years. After him Skandagupta ruled the Empire. Skandagupta was a great scholar and wise ruler. He rebuild the dam on Sudarshan Lake. Following Skandagupta's death, the Gupta Empire decline over a period of time. Although Hun invader Toramana was defeated by Bhanugupta in 510, but constant invades from Huns and revolt from inside the Empire, brings the end of this great kingdom in 550 A.D.