Computer Hardware Basics...
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Central Processing Unit (CPU):
It is the brains of the computer where most calculations
take place. CPU is the main part of a computer which carries out
the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic
arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the
Read Only Memory (ROM):
Read-only memory (ROM) is a non volatile memory. Data
stored in ROM cannot be modified and can only be read. An
example of ROM is EEPROM, which is a programmable ROM used for
the computer BIOS. ROM memory typically stores the "Firmware".
It contains the programming needed to start a PC which is
essential for boot-up; it performs major input/output tasks and
holds programs or software instructions.
There are other types of non-volatile memory such as:
• Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM)
• Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM)
•Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM; also called Flash ROM)
• Electrically Alterable Read-Only Memory (EAROM)
Random Access Memory (RAM):
Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data
storage. A random-access device allows stored data to be
accessed directly in any random order.
There are two different types of RAM:
• DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
• SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)
Hard Disk (HDD):
It is a magnetic disk on which computer store all data
provided by user. A HDD retains its data even when powered off.
is read in a random-access manner, meaning individual blocks of
data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than
sequentially. A single hard disk usually consists of several
platters. Each platter requires two read/write heads, one for
each side to read data.
The motherboard is a printed circuit board which connects
all of the major parts of a computer together. The CPU, memory,
hard drives, DVD drives, video card, sound card and other ports
and expansion cards all connect to the motherboard directly or
via cables. The motherboard can be thought of as the "back bone"
of the computer.
A monitor is an electronic output device which is used to
display the results of a computer generated. The monitor
the display device, circuitry and an enclosure. Today TFT, LCD
and LED type of monitors are generally available.
It is a typewriter-style input device which enables users
to enter data, information, command, and instruction to a
computer. The connector of a keyboard is generally 6-pin PS/2 or
USB type. The traditional keyboard that is used is known as
A mouse is an input pointing device. The mouse sends
information to the computer with the click. A typical mouse has
left button for left click and right button for right click.
There are 4 Types of Computer Mouse: Traditional mouse, Optical
mouse, wireless mouse and laptop mouse.
Floppy Disk Drive:
Floppy disk drives used to read / write data on floppy
disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and
DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data and
also more prone to damage.
CD/DVD drives use lasers to read/ write data on a CD/DVD disk.