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Computer Hardware Basics...


HomeComputer Exam⇒ Computer Hardware Basics


Central Processing Unit (CPU): CPU

It is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place. CPU is the main part of a computer which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.
 
Read Only Memory (ROM):

Read-only memory (ROM) is a non volatile memory. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified and can only be read. An example of ROM is EEPROM, which is a programmable ROM used for the computer BIOS. ROM memory typically stores the "Firmware". It contains the programming needed to start a PC which is essential for boot-up; it performs major input/output tasks and holds programs or software instructions.
There are other types of non-volatile memory such as:
• Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM)
• Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM)
•Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM; also called Flash ROM)
• Electrically Alterable Read-Only Memory (EAROM)
 


Random Access Memory (RAM):

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. A random-access device allows stored data to beRAM accessed directly in any random order.
There are two different types of RAM:
• DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
• SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)
 
Hard Disk (HDD):

It is a magnetic disk on which computer store all data provided by user. A HDD retains its data even when powered off. DataHDD is read in a random-access manner, meaning individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than sequentially. A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. Each platter requires two read/write heads, one for each side to read data.
 
Mother Board:

The motherboard is a printed circuit board which connects all of the major parts of a computer together. The CPU, memory,MotherBoard hard drives, DVD drives, video card, sound card and other ports and expansion cards all connect to the motherboard directly or via cables. The motherboard can be thought of as the "back bone" of the computer.
 
Monitor:

A monitor is an electronic output device which is used to display the results of a computer generated. The monitor comprisesMonitor the display device, circuitry and an enclosure. Today TFT, LCD and LED type of monitors are generally available.
 
Keyboard:

It is a typewriter-style input device which enables users to enter data, information, command, and instruction to a computer. The connector of a keyboard is generally 6-pin PS/2 or USB type. The traditional keyboard that is used is known as QWERTY keyboard.
 
Mouse:

A mouse is an input pointing device. The mouse sends information to the computer with the click. A typical mouse has two mainMousebuttons: left button for left click and right button for right click. There are 4 Types of Computer Mouse: Traditional mouse, Optical mouse, wireless mouse and laptop mouse.
 
Floppy Disk Drive:

Floppy disk drives used to read / write data on floppy disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data and also more prone to damage.
 
CD/DVD Drives:

CD/DVD drives use lasers to read/ write data on a CD/DVD disk.

 







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