Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Biography
Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India (1947–64) was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father Motilal Nehru was a prominent advocate and leader of the Indian independence movement. He takes honors degree in natural science from Trinity College, London. He qualified as a barrister after two years at the Inner Temple, London. He returned to India in 1916. Nehru married to Kamala Kaul. Their only child, Indira Priyadarshini was born in 1917.
Over the next thirty years, he rose to become the top political leader of the Indian National Congress Party and its struggle for independence from British. In 1923 he became general secretary of Congress for two years. He was elected as Congress president in 1929, where he presided over the historic session at Lahore that proclaimed complete independence from British as India’s political goal. After Gandhi arrested in January 1932, Nehru was charged with attempting to mount another civil disobedience movement. Nehru was also arrested and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment. Nehru drafted a set of core principles for India between 1929 and 1931, called the "Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy," which was adopted by the All India Congress Committee. Following the Quit India resolution passed by the Congress Party in Bombay on August 8, 1942, the entire Congress working committee, including Gandhi and Nehru, was arrested and imprisoned.
On August 15, 1947, India and Pakistan emerged as two separate, independent countries. Nehru became independent India’s first prime minister. As Prime Minister, Nehru instituted wide-spread economic and social reforms that helped India reorganized itself as a unified, modernizing state. He plays a vital role during the conflict with Pakistan and China.
Nehru was a renowned orator. He was one of the founders of the international non-aligned movement. He was also the founder of Panchashila. Jawaharlal was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books like ‘The Discovery of India’, ‘Glimpses of World History’, his autobiography, ‘towards Freedom' (1936) etc. He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1955.
He died on May 27, 1964, in New Delhi, India. His birthday, November 14, is celebrated in India as Children’s Day in recognition of his lifelong passion and work on behalf of children and young people.