Nobel Prize ......
• The Nobel Prize is widely considered the world’s most prestigious award. It is awarded for achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace and economics. The will of the Swedish chemist, engineer and industrialist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. Alfred Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. Alfred Nobel on 27 November 1895 signed his will for Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace.
• The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901.
First Recipient of Nobel Prizes in 1901 :
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (Physics)
Jacobus Henricus Van't Hoff (Chemistry)
Emil Adolf von Behring (Physiology or Medicine)
Sully Prudhomme (Literature)
Jean Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy (Peace Prize)
• In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank established The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Science to Award Nobel Prize in Economics. In 1969, Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen are the first recipient of Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences.
• Only Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway. Other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden.
• Between 1901 and 2019, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 597 times to 950 people and organizations.
• 21 individual organizations have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. First Organization to Received Nobel Prize is Institute of International Law in 1904.
• International Committee of the Red Cross has been awarded Nobel Peace Prize three times, in 1917, 1944 and 1963.
• Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, has received the Nobel Peace Prize twice, in 1954 and 1981.
• Till now Nobel Prize awarded 54 times to women.
• Marie Curie is the first woman to received Nobel Prize in 1903. Also Marie Curie is the only women who have been honored twice, with the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics and the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Marie Curie is the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
• Malala Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Laureates. She won Nobel Peace prize at the age of 17 in 2014. The oldest Nobel Laureates is John B. Goodenough who won Nobel Prize in Chemistry at the age of 97 in 2019.
• Four people have received two Nobel Prizes: Marie Curie , Linus Pauling, John Bardeen, Frederick Sanger.
• With total five, Curie family has received the most prizes: (Marie Curie received 2, Pierre Curie received 1, Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot-Curie received 1,Henry Labouisse received 1).
• Till now two People decline Nobel Prize. First person to decline the Nobel Prize is Jean-Paul Sartre, in 1964 in Literature.
• First Nobel Laureates to be awarded under arrest is Carl von Ossietzky, Germany.
• Till now five Indians have received Nobel Prize. They are: Rabindranath Tagore, C. V. Raman, Mother Teresa, Amartya Sen and Kailash Satyarthi. Rabindranath Tagore was the first person of Indian origin and also first Asian to be awarded with the Nobel Prize. He received the prize for Literature in 1913.